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There are several predisposing factors to adolescent pregnancy. They include a lack of parental guidance. Adolescent sexual behaviour which is promiscuous in nature. Exploitation by older men who lure young girls with money and other material things. Sexual abuse or rape and socio-economic. Inadequate knowledge about protected sexual intercourse. Peer pressure and teenage drinking which impairs the ability to make wise decisions.
Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program – The design focuses on the promotion of safe sexual and reproductive health practices so that there is reduction of unplanned pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections among adolescents through the provision of community outreach, health education and positive youth development
Parenting Teen Program It focuses on the provision of mothers at risk with the opportunity to get training and guidance on job, parenting and life skills. It also dwells on social, academic and independent living skill development among these mothers.
There has been a steep fall in the teen pregnancy rate. By the year 2011 according to the data that is available, the rate was 62 pregnancies per 1,000 teen girls (age 15-19); some 5,270 teen pregnancies. Therefore the teen pregnancy rate has reduced by 57% since 1988. Since 2008, the teen pregnancy rate has changed by -10%
Commentary on rate
There has been a reduction in the teen pregnancy rate. One of the possible reasons that can be attributed to this reduction is that there is increased utilization of contraception in is Nevada. Research has demonstrated an increase in the contraceptive prevalence rate. This has been achieved through the public health campaigns that raise awareness about teenage pregnancies. There has been provision of free barrier contraceptives to the sexually active demographic.
Adolescent pregnancy is a very risky for both the adolescent and the baby. The body of an adolescent has not fully matured enough to provide and support a growing child, let alone the adolescent as well. The adolescent age is very important and is considered the stage where children learn to explore their sexuality while peer pressure influences their thoughts, behavior, likes and dislikes. The media also influences how adolescents perceive themselves as well as others around them. Girls are more sensitive to social media and lack of parental support, proper education on dangers of drugs, sex and violence can lead to poor health habits that are hard to break as they grow into adults. Based on Center of Disease and Control (CDC) the rate of adolescent pregnancy had decreased by 9% from 2013 to 2014. In California, the rate of adolescent pregnancy ages 15- 19 years of age has decreased to 25.7 % out of every 1,000 females in the past 10 years according to the California Department of Public health. The decrease in adolescent/ teen birth rates is said to be contributed to social media depiction of teen pregnancy and the hardship of teen pregnancy, along with the increased sexual education programs in school and family planning along with the range of contraceptives available. However, the rate of adolescent pregnancy is still higher in US than other countries. In 2014 about 249,078 babies were given birth to by women ages 15 to 19 years old (“About teen pregnancy”, 2015).
Adolescent pregnancy affects the career aspiration and choices for the adolescent for it is costly to care for a baby. Also the cost for the society increases for welfare and medical cost for both the adolescent mother and the baby. Often adolescent mothers achieve education only up to high school for many pregnant adolescents drop out in order to provide for their child and often from pressure from peers and society. Based on CDC About 50% of teen/adolescent mothers receive a high school diploma by the age of 22 and children of adolescent mothers were less likely to have high achievements in school (” Social Determinants and Eliminating Disparities in Teen Pregnancy”, 2016).
There are many community and state resources that aim to prevent adolescent pregnancy. One community based program aimed at adolescent/teen pregnancy called Generation Her, a non-profit organization that aims to enlighten, strengthen and encourage teen mothers by providing mentors, local resources for childcare, teaching life goals and encouraging continuation of education (“Generation Her”). One state resource for adolescent mothers called California’s Adolescent Sibling Pregnancy Prevention Program. The program was developed in 1996 to provide services for pregnant and parenting adolescents and teen in schools, county- health departments, and other community based resources. The organization provides academic guidance, enhances self-esteem, provides job placement, teaches decision-making skills and provides information about safe sex-abstinence and contraception (” California’s Adolescent Sibling Pregnancy Prevention Program.”, 2008)