Were the samples appropriate for the population to which the researcher wished to generalize?
Research evaluation of article Student Course Tutor Date Which type applies to the article selected? Quantitative study Location of Researcher’s Observation (Experiment)? School were children involved? NOINTRODUCTIONResearch Hypothesis/Research Questions(s)/Problem Behavior(s) The study aimed at examining engagement premarital status based on the satisfaction of relationship, as well as idealistic expectations in marital status among the beliefs of young adults. For more understanding, the study focused on determining whether there is identifiable differences on Evaluation and nurturing Relationship Issues, Communication and Happiness (ENRICH) Marital Satisfaction Scale (EMS) against, Idealistic Distortion(ID) and Marital Satisfaction(Bonds-Raacke et al., 2001). Further to correlate the aspect of marital satisfaction against length of marriages. This factor was facilitated by satisfaction aspects especially on happiness, connected to decreasing levels in marriage status. Operational definition(s) Marriage satisfaction- in the study satisfaction in marriage refers to the social, emotional, sexual as well as the financial factors that enhance the belief happiness in marriage. Further, Bonds-Raacke et al. (2001) maintains that, initial stages in marriage portrays satisfaction coupled with sexual activities Marital expectations in the study refer to the set standard and qualities in reference to factors that enhance happiness as construed by varied individuals. To measure the outcomes of these aspects, this analysis wills determine the results of the study in respect to satisfaction and expectations correlation.Is the need for the study clearly stated in the introduction? YES. Purpose of conducting the study is indicated on the notions implied on marriage; happiness/satisfaction and expectation. These factors are mostly held by persons in premarital status. Hypothesis The research hypotheses are clearly stated within the purpose of the study, based on application of several theories for applicability in determining satisfaction and expectations. Review of Literature as relevant to the study The literature for this study is short and precise enabling the reader to understand the concepts to be evaluated. This section elaborates the satisfaction and expectation concepts for this study, with factors associated by most individuals as happiness in marriage leading to satisfaction. METHOD Sample size and Size per group/cell The study employed a cluster sampling technique in selecting the participants. A sample size of 104 students was selected with consideration of two groups segregated on gender basis. Further, these groups were segregated according to the marital statuses to garner more understanding on satisfaction and expectation factors. Therefore, the two groups included 23 men against 81 women while the marital statuses groups had 15 married participants, 19 participants who were engaged and 70 participants in dating relationships. In addition, the study considered the age factor with the mean age considered to be 22 of all the participants in the study. Questionswere the methods described so that the study could be replicated without further information? Yes____ No______ Then explain why. YES- to sustain the focus of the study SubjectsWere subject recruitments and selection methods described? Yes or No NOWere subjects randomly selected? Were there any biases in sampling? If yes please explain. The study subjects were randomly selected within the cluster. There were no biases in sampling as the study considered gender perspectives. Further, it may appear imbalanced but the criterions further applied by the researchers enhance minimization of biases.Were the samples appropriate for the population to which the researcher wished to generalize? If yes, explain. YES. The appropriateness of the study samples is evident with connection to the study purpose discussed earlier. The study aimed at evaluating the aspects of satisfaction and expectation, which corresponds to the sample selected. The samples were selected within a university which is comprehensive to attain willing and available individuals for participation.Were characteristics of the sample adequately described? Characteristics of the sample were described inform of ranging marital statuses. This relates to the married participants, engaged participants and participants in dating relationships.Are there two or more groups being compared? If so what are they? To accentuate understanding of satisfaction and expectations, the study compared varied groups. These groups are men and women and also, the married, engaged and those dating.Was informed consent obtained? Explain. Informed consent was obtained for the study as evident where the researcher acknowledged participation of respondents as voluntarily. More so, the consent also considered the confidentiality of the participants which is an ethical attribute in conducting research. Was the size of the sample large enough for the number of measures and for the effect being sought? (gut feeling) On the contrary, the sample size was not adequate for all the measures that were expected in the study. More would have garnered precise results especially since the methods of data collection used had cost effectiveness factors aligned with time management. Further, since the sample was selected prior informed, biases were probable to the questions asked.RESEARCH DESIGN Correlational research is applied with inclusion of the two groups to show the relationship between expectations and satisfactions in marriage. Survey research is applied with consideration of the specific groups’ selection to offer insight on expectation and satisfaction in marriage. Phenomenology is applied with aim of understanding satisfaction and expectations in marriage from married, engaged and individuals on extended dating relationships. Cross sectional- the study employs this design in selection of samples based on age groups facilitated by marital statuses. The age groups selected resulted to a median of age 22. Cross sequential “ the time selected or the study was short against the age groups selected for the study. Two or more dependent variables (MANOVA) -these variables are-married participants, engaged participants and the dating participants If appropriate, was a control group used? No control group in the study for both groups; men and women had equal stakes to the study subject. MEASURESType of dependent Measure(s)/Instruments used EMS scale was used to measure the data collected for reliability as well as validity to the study. The scale had selected 15 items where 10 assessed marital status and the reminder, assessed both positive and impractical relationships responses. Likert scale -6 point was used to assess the attitudes of the participant, on their relationship satisfaction. Measurement/Instrument Validity Concurrent validity was used in the study to measure the correlation between women and men responses on relationships. This method measured reliability of the EMS scale on agreement between the study variables. Construct validity was also used to show the correlation of EMS scale on the scores agreement. It measured neutral scores on participants’ parental responsibilities as well as satisfaction on heterosexual relationships. Measurement/Instrument Reliability Information EMS scale had .86 internal reliability on alternative aspects related to marriage satisfaction and expectations with intent of identifying causal effects on the variables. For instance, parents influence on marriage perceptions and the relationships of situations signifying satisfaction and expectations signs in marriage and premarital relationships. INDEPENDENT/DEPENDENT VARIABLE Independent variable “ is identified as the satisfaction and expectations factors in marriage for individuals in premarital status Dependent Variable- identified as the individuals with expectations and varying satisfaction in marriage. These are the married, engaged and those in extended dating. Consider the Following Questions: For all measures (measures to classify subjects, dependent variables, etc..) was evidence of reliability and validity provided, either through summarizing the data, or by referring the reader to an available source for that information? YES Do the reliability and validity data justify the use of the measure? Specific evidence is particularly important if a measure is created just for this particular study? Do the measures match the researchers questions and hypothesis being addressed? Reliability and vaidity specific evideneis seenwith age and gender measures as wel as thbehavior in satisfaction and exectation. Further, they match researhers hypothesis in terms of the correlatioinal between thses vaiables towadrds marriage expetation and satisfaction. In the case that different tasks or measures are used, was their order counterbalanced? Do the researchers analyze for potential order effects?Analysis of order effect is counterbalanced with consderatioin of actors that relate and influence marriage exectatiions and satisactio sucha s parents, inudividual prefernces and many more. Are multiple measures used, particularly those that sample the same domains, or constructs but with different methods (e.g., self-report, rating scales, self-monitoring, or direct observation)?Multiple measures are used such a Pearsons correlational analysis, Likert scale, EMS, with aim of identifying correlation in marriage determinants for expectation and satisfaction If human observers, judges, or raters were involved, was inter-observer or inter-rater agreement (reliability) assessed? Was it obtained for a representative sample of the data? Did the two raters do their ratings independently? Was their reliability satisfactory? Satisfactory for reliability was indeenlty confined to the reserchers pespectives. DATA ANALYSISScales of Measurement Nominal scales for measuring the mode of responses from the selected sample groups Ordinal Scales for measuring the mode of responses according to order, hence the Likert Scale incorporation for causal relationship. What type of statistical Techniques are used “ Pearson Correlational Analyses technique to show relationship regarding age factor and EMS. Further, indicating varying responses on gender responses. Scheffe post hoc analysis was used t elaborate the ideal status of marriage for engaged participants and those dating. What type of Table and Graphs are used? No visual presentation of analyzed data. Do the data fulfill the assumptions and requirements of the statistics? (Explain) Assumptions were fulfilled with outcomes of expectations affecting satisfaction in marriage. Were the tests of significance used and reported appropriately (e.g., with sufficient detail to understand what analysis was being conducted)? YES In Correlational studies, did the researchers interpret low but significant correlations as though they indicated a great deal of shared variance between the measures? Are the correlations limited by restricted ranges on one or more measures? Are the means and standard deviations provided so that you can determine this? (Explain each question a bit) The researcher interpreted significant correlations such as age and gender. The correlations had more than one measures such as Pearson Correlational analysis and EMS. Additionally, means and standard deviations are provided such as the results of no significance between age and gender. Do the researchers report means and standard deviations (if relevant) so that the reader can examine whether statistically significant differences are large enough to be meaningful? Explain. The researchers have used standard deviation and means to show the significance of age and gender differences and also, married participants’ perceptions on satisfaction and expectations as compared to the dating participants. Please list limitation(s) of the study Short literature review, more information past studies on varied Correlational variables such as age and gender as well as participants past point of views. Cluster sampling which could present biases to the study results. This means the researcher would have diversified the selection of sample populations. Small number of participants with probability if biases especially due to random sampling within the sample location. DISCUSSION Summary and conclusions- UsefulnessDo the researchers discuss marginally or non-significant results as though they were significant? (Explain) The study usefulness is evident in the results as the significantly relays the outcomes corresponding to the research. The results discussed in are significant to the study for relationships satisfaction and expectations emphasis, for instance the incorporation of romance as expectation facilitating satisfaction in marriage. Do the researchers over interpret the data? For example, do they use casual language to integrate Correlational findings or consider self-report of behavior to be equivalent to direct observation? Explain as well Data is precisely interpreted though the researcher includes self reports based on observations such as the view on romantic love. Do the researchers consider alternative explanations for the findings? YES. Do the researchers have a humility sections that describes the limitations of the research? NO Do the researchers point out aspects of subject selection, procedures, and dependent variables that limit generalizability of the findings? YES. These factors are media enhanced perceptions on happiness, hence affecting individuals on expectations and satisfaction in marriage. DESCRIBE WHAT YOU LEARNED FROM THE STUDY Lesson learnt in the study relates to the satisfaction and expectations in marriage being a perception to individuals. These aspects are further influenced by what individuals perceive from external surroundings. Therefore, individuals are affected once they get married and the expectations and satisfaction diminish, leading to marital problems which may prompt counseling for solutions or separation. Reference Bonds-Raacke, J., Bearden, E. S., Carriere, N. J., Anderson, E. M., & Nicks, S. D. (2001). Engaging distortions: Are we idealizing marriage? The Journal of Psychology, 135(2), 179-179-84.
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