1/ Briefly explain how the Ames test is performed and the purpose of the Ames test?
2/ Briefly explain the following and their significance:
3/ You have just been hired by a new pharmaceutical company, Double Helix, as their quality control scientist. The company has seen an increase in the number of laboratory mistakes lately and it is your job to solve these problems. Explain how the following procedures should or should not affect the experimental results. Explain the reasoning for your answer. (A) a) In performing a DNA fingerprinting experiment, the researcher doesn’t denature the DNA. (B) The researcher uses two primers in the same di- deoxy (Sanger)sequencing reaction. (C) In performing a yeast knockout, the cells are grown in the absence of Uracil. (D) When performing a P element insertion in Drosophila, the researcher forgets to add the marker gene on one of the plasmids.
5/ Answer the following questions regarding PCR. Briefly explain how parent First and Second generation DNA strands differ in a PCR reaction (that is the template DNA, the First product of the PCR reaction and the Second product derived from the First).
6/ After working in the lab for some time, you have developed a series of inhibitors that block specific enzymes and proteins from functioning properly (both in bacteria and in mammalian cells depending on the protein). These inhibitors work immediately and completely (the protein does not function) upon addition to cells in culture. Given inhibitors for the proteins shown below, what will happen to the cells on the treated plates? Determine if the affect on cell function will be immediate, slow or unnoticeable and explain your answers. (A) DNA (bacteria)- (B) Primase (bacteria)- (C) Telomerase (mammalian cells)-